Medical Institute n.a. Chkalov (now «The Orenburg State Medical Academy») was established in 1944. Classes began at the Department of General Medicine (4 course years). Official founders of the Institute are considered to be Lazarenko F.M., histologist, professor; Olifson L.E., chemist, associate professor; Silantyev A.K, associate professor, surgeon; the first director of the Institute was Fetisov N.V., surgeon-dentist. Department of Pediatrics was opened in 1970, a scientific-research laboratory was opened for exploration of mechanisms of natural immune system. Doctors Improvement Faculty was opened (now it is called Department of post-graduate training for specialists), student’s hostel № 3 and canteen were built in 1985. The institute continued its development in 1990-s, new departments, such as Department of higher nursing care and Department of preventive care, were opened. The Orenburg State Medical Academy opened 3 new departments in 2002 (Dental, Pharmaceutical, Department of clinical psychology) and became a higher educational institution with 8 departments.